The national state


The armed rebellion in Herzegovina in 1875 marked the reemergence of the “Eastern question”. In the first Serbian-Turkish war, Serbia was defeated and owing to the intervention of Russia a truce was concluded. In the second Serbian-Turkish war in 1877, Serbia recaptured Nis, Pirot and Vranje. The advance of the Serbian army was stopped following a peace treaty between Turkey and Russia. Besides the situation on the terrain, the influence of the Great Powers was crucial for the final outcome of the wars in 1876-1877. At the Berlin Congress in 1878, Serbia received its independence and territorial expansion, and in 1882 it was pronounced a kingdom.


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